The 19th amendment granted women the right to vote on August 18, 1920 and guarantees all American women the right to vote.
The federal government had to pass a law allowing the women of the United States to be able to have a voice in their country.
The first 144 years women were not allowed to vote. The women who demonstrated and had the courage to speak out for the right of women to vote were shamed and humiliated.
In 1954 the Supreme Court again had to get involved in equal protection for all with the Brown/vsBoard of Education that once and for all declared segregation was illegal, despite quite a few states ignoring their decision. (Here is a time-line of rights in regards to equal rights in education http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-25-spring-2004/feature/brown-v-board-timeline-school-integration-us)
In 1956 the Supreme Court, again had to intervene with a decision affirming a lower court ruling declaring segregation of the Montgomery bus system illegal, giving a major victory to Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the thousands of anonymous African Americans who had sustained the bus boycott in the face of violence and intimidation.
The Supreme Court legalized interracial marriage in the United States in 1967 because, while some states believed an interracial couple had the right to be legally married, many states refused to allow interracial marriages. The 1967 Supreme Court decision deemed anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional. (reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interracial_marriage)
If you want a coherent list of recent decisions the Supreme Court has engaged in you can find it here: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/us/major-supreme-court-cases-in-2015.html?_r=0 . it is there where you find the Supreme Court recent decisions to allow the Affordable Care Act and the inalienable rights of same sex marriage.
The founding fathers were wise in recognizing the importance of separation of “church”/”religion” and government. In a free democracy, it is insane to believe one religion or belief system should govern the whole. Government must get involved to protect every citizens rights and the constitution was set up to protect these freedoms…these inalienable rights, especially since there are some states that still believe there state is governed by religious beliefs.